The First Sabbath in Hong Kong

原來,喜嘉理牧師常有向當年加州的一份名為"The Pacific"的公理會報刊投稿,可惜在網上找不到早年The Pacific的存檔;經多年尋問,透過美國波士頓Congregational Library的librarian的無私協助,我們喜獲當中數期喜牧文章的照片,其中這篇喜牧寫到他剛踏足香港的首主日的見聞和感受,文中提到不少重要的人物,包括溫清溪等;而提到溫老的這段就曾被施其樂牧師(Rev. Carl Smith)在其著作"Chinese Christians: Elites, Middlemen, and the Church in Hong Kong"中引述過:

[For The Pacific]
The First Sabbath in Hong Kong.
———-
We may well judge a country or city by the manner in which it keeps its Sabbath. Is the day properly observed as a day of sacred rest, then may we hope to find a people who are thrifty and prosperous. Is it unheeded and even despised, then is it a veritable fact that the country or city is tainted with an immoral atmosphere. I do not know how many times, since my short stay here, I have thought of the question asked me by Dr. Farnham, at my ordination: “Do you believe in keeping the Sabbath, in a loose manner, or do you hold to its strict religious observance?" I wondered very much at the time that any one should ask such a question, but, since coming here I see what led to the Doctor’s question. The Sabbath! why you would scarcely know it from any other day. I have a faint recollection of being aroused from my slumbers on the Sabbath morning of April 1st by a carnival of street noises, and for a moment I was bewildered to know whether it was really the Lord’s day. The streets were thronged with passers-by, every one being intent upon his own particular business. Most of these, however, were Chinese, as the English do observe some sort of a Sabbath, although they allow the Chinese to do Government work on that day. Pure English customs are in vogue here, at the hotels as well as in private families. A Chinaman came into my room to get my shoes to polish them I thought of a story about one of our college Presidents, with reference to blacking a certain English divine’s boots. Some years ago, when Dr. _____ was in the United State, he was the guest of one of our college Presidents. The President, having no servant, took the boots and polished them for his guest, and, on the following morning, the English divine found his boots all nicely cleaned, but he never dreamed that his host had been hie servant. For some time the story was kept a secret, but after a while it found its way among the students and to this day, I believe they are telling this simple story in honour of their noble President.

After I had carefully made my toilet, and quietly surveyed the scene from a third-story verandah, and been invited to partake of a little breakfast-tea, I repaired to the house of Mr. Wang Ching Kai (a California Chinese) and found Lee Sam there. The family were all gathered together for morning worship, and, though the place was far from being anything like our own American rooms, still it was quite comfortable and pleasant. The family consisted of the father and his two sons, a nephew, and the wife of his eldest son. Two other sons belong to the family, but they were not present. The married son is one of the returned Chinese American students who have been engaged in teaching in the Government school, but leaves soon for Shanghai, to engage in mechanics there. His wife is a pupil of Miss Noyer, from Canton, and appears to be a very pleasant lady, though she cannot talk a word of English. Her husband speak English quite distinctly. I was asked to unite in prayer with the family, after we had listened to an exposition of 2 Tim. ii: 1 (a part of the same text that Dr. Mooar chose in giving his charge to me). I do not know whether comments were alike, but while she spoke on the text, I thought of some of the things the Doctor’s counsel contained, having had little time for protracted meditation on shipboard. Then we sang “Gates Ajar," in Chinese, as well we could, after which we were led in prayer by Lee Sam. I enjoyed the service very much, though I could understand but little. Would that all the families of China were thus devoted to the cause of their Master. I have thus spoken at length of this family because I have been the recipient of many kindnesses from them, and they are much in sympathy with our work, and will do much help us, though belonging to the London Mission Church.

At 11 o’clock I attended the Union church, of Hongkong, whose present pastor has the reputation of not being entirely orthodox, but it was my good fortune to listen to the Secretary of the London Missionary Society, who is now traveling through China inspecting the various missions. He reached an able discourse on the text, “A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another." It was read out, forcibly and impressively delivered. The sermon was followed by the Lord’s Supper administered to about thirty persons — rather a small number when it is considered the church sittings are about 250 to 300, and that about 150 were at the first service. I remained to engage in the simple rite of remembering the atoning work of Christ. I was, however, very much surprised that there was no prayer offered over the bread and wine, but concluded that I had entered strange city, and must expect to see strange things; still I could not forget that our Lord had given thanks before he gave the bread and the cup to the disciples. There was one thing, however, that impressed me very favorably with English service, and that is, before any one retires from the church the whole congregation engages for a few minutes in silent prayer. It adds very much to the solemnity of the service, and is certainly far better than our own hurried dismissal from church. At the close of every service this is universal custom from Japan to Hongkong, and I regard it as an excellent practice, and hope some one will introduce it into our American Congregational churches.

From two to three o’clock the London Missionary Society held a communion service for the Chinese in the game place, and I was pleasantly surprised to see the house well filled, and most of them partaking of the sacrament. It seemed such a pleasant contrast to the few who had gathered in the morning. Rev. E. C. Edge conducted the exercises, while his wife led the singing, beating time with her fan, in a vigorous manner. Mr. Thompson spoke a few words to the Chinese on Christianity and how much it had done for the people in India, where he had recently visited the missions.

After the Chinese service, there was a Sunday-school, but it hardly deserves the name, as there were only thirty or forty present, when the room should have been filled. I noticed only one Chinese class among the small number of classes. There were a few older ones present, but they were mostly sailors and soldiers. I cannot account for this small number of scholars, except by referring it to the want of interest of the English people in the Sunday-school. It furnished me considerable food for meditation, as I pondered how I might open a Sunday-school especially for the Chinese. At present, until the close of the year, the Chinese are allowed in the Union church, but after that it been decided that they must meet elsewhere. I find there is considerable caste-feeling here, but that is vain human nature everywhere. The Assistant Superintendent of the Sunday-school is an American, and it did me good to extend to him the fraternal hand of a countryman.

In the evening it was my business to attend a religious service held at a temperance hall conducted by the Hongkong Christian Association. It was a good place to be in; the preaching was not metaphysical, but pure gospel, and I trust some felt the power of the truth. I need not say that, the preacher was an American ( Rev. D. D. Jones). Some, of the more active and earnest Christians of Hongkong bold such services in several parts of the city during the week, and ministers and missionaries are invited to officiate about once a month, and hence the name, “Hongkong Christian Association."

As I returned to my room after the service. I was gladdened and cheered to know that Hongkong has some earnest Christians, who love the salvation of white souls more than their own ease; yet as I saw again the hundreds and thousands of Chinamen pursuing their evening business, I yearned for the same salvation to come to them, and may that prayer be soon answered.

C. R. HAGER.

(Extracts from The Pacific, Vol. 32, No. 24 June 13, 1883)

Sün Yat San (The original text of “Dr. Sun Yat Sen: Some Personal Reminiscences")

大部份研究孫中山的學者都會讀過甚至引用過喜嘉理牧師刊於 The Missionary Herald v.108 1912年4月號的那篇"Dr. Sun Yat Sen: Some Personal Reminiscences"或由馮自由先生翻譯的中譯文《美國喜嘉理牧師關於孫總理信教之追述》,見過有學者從文章中挑出不少點子來造文章,甚至引起了一些學術上的爭論(例如黃宇和院士與李金強教授之間的辯論);卻原來在美部會(美國公理海外傳道部的簡稱/ABCFM)保存的檔案中,有一份喜牧此文的親筆原稿給收錄了在微膠卷內。編者拿膠卷上的手槁跟印行的版本比對,發現原來印行的版本在經過編輯後,有不少關鍵的段落或字詞都給略去或潤飾了,而這些給略去了的文字,正是某些爭論的焦點所在。

現特將手稿文字打好貼出,並盡量不加修飾,包括一些大小楷或標點符號都以原文為準。(特將印行本略去的段落加上紅色,至於個別用字或標點上之差異,恕難逐一標註。)

So much has been written of this noted Chinese that has not always been in accordance with truth, that it has seemed best to me to record a few facts of my relation with him. It was in the autumn or possibly the winter months of 1883 that I first met him and judged him to be about 16-18 years of age. He had returned to China from Honolulu where he had spent a number of years in study, while his older brother was engaged in business there. I do not know why he returned to China but it was probably to be united in marriage to a black-haired daughter of Han as the Chinese love to be called. Indeed about the only reason why Chinese young men return to their old home is to take unto themselves a wife that has been picked out for them by their parents. If Sün Yat San did this, it was but in accordance with Chinese custom which does not change like the laws of the Medes & Persians. He had come to Hongkong on the same ship with Rev. Frank W. Damon who introduced him to me. At that time I was not so conversant with the Chinese language that I never talked in English, yea I was still in the throes of that terrible monster & was only too glad to speak in my native tongue whenever I got an opportunity and so I talked the Queen’s English to our young friend, who always shut his eyes when he smiled or laughed. Of course I could not help asking him whether he was a Christian, to which he made reply that he believed the doctrine of Christ. “Then why do you not become baptized?" asked I. “I am ready to be baptized at any time," replied he, and so after some months of waiting he received the ordinance about a stone’s throw from the present American Board Mission Church in Hongkong. The rite was performed in a Chinese school room where a few Chinese were wont to meet with me every Sunday, for at that time I was the sole representative of the American Board in South China, and continued alone for 8 years. It was a humble structure where the future Provisional President of China’s first Republic received the sacred ordinance. During the week days a Chinese boys’ school was taught there, while our young friend lived in the second story with some other Chinese and an American Bible Society’s colporteur and I lived in the 3rd story. In this way I saw a great deal of him and always liked him. For a time he attended the Diocesan School of the Church of England, which is one of the best schools in Hongkong. My son attended this school at a late period and although he lacked a little over a year in completing his course, he was admitted to the first year in the High School in Calif. Sün Yat San however did not continue long in the school, but soon changed to go to Queen’s College whose curriculum was no higher than the school he left. It was some time in 1884 that an Englishman & I accompanied Sün Yat San to his home in Heung Shan. We decided to sell a number of Gospels on the way and in passing through the Portuguese colony of Macao we disposed of a great many scriptures. Sün Yat San took us to a Chinese inn where a bed and two meals cost us about 30 or 40 cents a day. Of course we ate with Chinese chopsticks & slept on Chinese bed boards, just as our friend Sün Yat San did. After a day or two we went to his home and on entering his village I shall never forget how he greeted his mother which seemed to me so cold & formal, that it made a lasting impression upon me, but it was the usual and ordinary way of greeting in China. I would have thrown my arms around my mother for in those early days I was lonely enough to want to express my feelings in a more practical way, but that is not Chinese custom and a few casual remarks with no hand shaking or embracings was all that Chinese custom demanded. The cold chills crept up my back & I still feel chilly when I remember the shock I received of this seemingly hearthen Chinese custom for Sün Yat San had not met his mother for some time & I with my own. American ideas received had far different ideas on the subject. For several days we enjoyed the hospitality of our friend and if I remember rightly we also saw his wife. From the observation I made I concluded that Sün Yat San belonged to one of the more well-to-do families. The house in which we lodged was of a superior type. This was probably due to the elder brother’s prosperity in business in Honolulu. After Sün Yat San became a Christian he immediately began to witness for Christ & such was his earnestness that in a short time two of his friends accepted Christianity. This was at a time when few converts were made and when many feared to identify themselves with Christians. But such was the earnestness of Sün Yat San that he won these men to the truth. It was the same power that he has always had of making men believe his opinions. That is the reason why nearly all of the 7,500,000 Chinese who are now abroad in other countries came to accept his views that the Manchus must go. True many of the Christians could not ally themselves with him but at heart they were one with him. It was the same power by which he has given to China a Republic instead of continuing the old monarchy, yea I believe it was the same power by which he won over Yuan Shih Kai to his views and his scheme and although now he has voluntarily resigned from the Presidency, yet I am convinced that he will do this without offending anyone. That is the reason why this unsophisticated youth has sprung into prominence. Then too he has learned many lessons in the school of adversity, for no sooner had his brother of Honolulu heard that he had become a Christian, then he sent home word that if he did not give up his Christianity that he would no longer send any more money home, and an elder brother in China in case of the father’s death, has almost unlimited authority and power, but this threat had no effect upon our young enthusiastic Christian who did not stop promulgating his views on the Christian religion & the falsity of idols. Finding that his threats did not move Sün Yat San, his elder brother wrote to him to come once more to Honolulu as he wanted to effect a certain sale to which his signature was necessary. This was however a mere subterfuge to get him away from China. After his arrival in Honolulu his brother not only threatened him but absolutely refused to give him any money and the Chinese Christians took up a contribution for him that he might return to China again and study for the ministry, for at this time Sün Yat San had strong convictions that he must follow the clerical profession. The above incident was told me by Sün Yat Sen himself after his return to China, and all the threats of his older brother did not swerve him from his Christian principles & he remained a Christian, and perhaps if there had been a good and live Theological Seminary at that time in Hongkong or in Canton, and some one to support him Sün Yat San might have become the most famous preacher of his time, not in the power of his eloquence but in the magnetic power of personal contact with men in winning them to Christ. After several months of inactivity he decided to take up the study of medicine which has always been held in high esteem and next to the ministry by the Chinese. He came to me and asked me whether I could not give him a letter to the venerable Dr. J. G. Kerr and ask him if he would not remit a part of the medical fees, which were at that time about $20 a year. I gave him the letter and for one or two years he studied Western medicine in the Chinese language, but came to Hongkong once more after the opening of the Hongkong Medical College and matriculated for four years in an English medical school taught by the various Physicians & Doctors of Hongkong in connection with the Alice Memorial Hospital that had been given by a Chinese Dr. who had married an English lady. After her death he presented this gift to the London Mission one of whose physicians has always had charge of this institution. It was probably about this time that Sün Yat San began to express his ideas on the reforms needed in China and secretly to lay plans for the great changes that have now occurred. It was at this time that he impressed himself & his views so favorably upon his associates, Chinese pastors, and others that have rallied around his standard secretly for nearly 20 years.

After his graduation of medicine and while I was in America taking my own degree in medicine, he devised a scheme of treating the Chinese in Macao upon a large scale and for a time at least the wealthy Chinese contributed large sums of money for a free hospital in that colony but after several years the scheme was given up on account of financial difficulties. Not long after my return to China in 1894, Sün Yat San called upon me with a former pastor of the London Mission. He seemed the same kind and respectful young man that he always was but what surprised me was the remark of the native pastor who was once considered the Chrysostom among the Chinese preachers & who had just returned from a three years’ sojourn in Germany as a teacher of Chinese in Berlin. “How were you able," asked he, “to persuade such a man to become a Christian." I answered that I had nothing to do with it but that God called him to his service. I have often thought of that interview & to-day it seems clearer to me than ever before that even at that time Sün Yat San had already impressed himself upon the most progressive element of Chinese society who were following him as their leader, for a few months later an attempt was made to take possession of Canton. About 100 Chinese largely coolies were hired to go from Hongkong to Canton and take possession of the official residences in Canton, but alas the scheme leaked out and the reformers barely escaped with their lives, even Sün Yat San was almost seized and some Christians were beheaded one of there was one of the man that had been led to Christ by Sün Yat San ten years before, & who was also baptized in Hongkong. Many of the prominent London Mission men were a party to this revolutionary scheme. After this, Dr. Sün as we shall now call him became a wandering refugee, never sure that he might not fall into the clutches of the Chinese government which had placed a large sum of money upon his head. Being in London pursuing still further his medical studies he was decoyed into the Chinese embassy & made a prisoner, with the view of taking him back to China to secure the price set upon his head, but Dr. Sün found a way to communicate with Dr. Cantlie who was once his teacher in Hongkong, and through his teacher’s efforts & Lord Salisbury’s action he was released. It was while here that I wrote him several letters & received a reply to each one. One of these dealt with a former sin in which he allowed himself to be entrapped. He frankly acknowledged his wrong and confessed his sin with a promise of amendment. From this time on he never came openly to Hongkong and even Japan as well as the Hongkong government were obliged to refuse him residence within their territory on account of his former revolutionary scheme for many a criminal has been handed over to the Canton authorities by the English government Hongkong.

Another lapse of years followed and I saw him no more until 1904, when for a little time in San Francisco I conversed with him, he told me that nothing less than a change of Dynasty was needed in China. I tried to show him that the reforms which he formerly advocated were being adopted, to which he replied merely by saying that the Manchus must be ousted. He did not argue, and when he found that Christian missionaries and even some Chinese Christians could not go so far as he went, he did not denounce them nor try to involve them for he knew that they could not follow him, he simply went to the heathen in foreign lands to whom he presented his views. Of course many Chinese Christians were his secret followers. That is the reason why he was chosen the first Provisional Pres. of the Chinese Republic. During the same year of 1904 I met him once more in a Chinese mission service in New York. He had lost much of the vivacity of his youth & seemed careworn & oppressed with anxiety, but he was still loyal to the Christian faith. Being anxious to raise some money among the Chinese for our Hongkong mission church he told me that a Mr. Tong, a relative of Tong Shau Yi, Yuen Shih Kai’s Peace Commissioner and from the same district of Heung Shan, might be able to assist me. Dr. Sün undoubtedly has been collecting funds for many years for this revolution and the Chinese of America have given large sums to aid him. His first attempted revolution was financed from the Hawaiian Islands & Hongkong. It need not be thought strange that Dr. Sün should attempt to change China’s government. He had learned the lesson from the missionaries & others in Hawaii when they deposed a queen, who was perhaps not quite so bad as the former Empress Dowager of China, and now that Dr. Sün has resigned the Presidency of the Chinese Republic in favor of another Chinese he has shown himself the same simple hearted & really earnest Christian patriot that he is.

Personally I am sorry that he found it necessary to do so, but he has not buried himself but rather cemented China as a whole and he may yet if he lives become a shining light in the future history of the Republic of China. He is certainly a greater man than the present Elected President Yuen Shih Kai, who if he had aided the former Emperor of China might have avoided the terrible Boxer uprising and saved the Manchu rule in China. Thus far he has acted nobly and let us hope that he may yet be called to an important position in the government, but whether in or out of service, he will always be a moving power in the affairs of the nation. For 18 years he has been banished from his own country and in constant danger of losing his life, but when he returned again he was immediately made President of the Republic that he largely created, and even won over the Premier of China. Under his rule missions & every good course would have received much benefit. The national church of which he has spoken would not be church & state united, but rather one common church for all the Chinese. The name he bears is significant of his life and the word Sün or Suen is the clan name & means “descendant" while he has borne three given names within the last 20 years, the first is Yat San 日新 “Day new" or “Daily renewal" or “daily reform". Another name is “Man" 文 which is the character for “literary" by which he was chiefly called after his banishment. Now he bears another name of Yat Sin 日仙 which means “Day’s genii" or the “Suns Immortal One". In all these names there is a semblance of his character, and if the Republic of China lives it will be due to his untiring zeal and self abnegation for the good of his own countrymen. Once I coveted him for the gospel ministry but if he is true to his God & his country in the present crisis I shall be satisfied. I still remember those early years of loneliness when the works seemed very hard & when I often went three months without seeing a white face, but during those very years, Sün Yat San was won to the truth & another Chinese to the Gospel ministry, Chan Sui Cheung who proved to be the foremost Congregational Pastor of South China whose like has not yet been seen on the field & whose memory still lives in the hearts of those he trained for the Gospel ministry, and if it should be asked how such men were induced to be Christians or to enter the ministry , then I would merely say it was neither learning nor philosophy that won them but in making myself one with the Chinese. Had I done as I have known some others to do, & never travel with Chinese on the same boat or had lived in a fine missionary compound, I should never have been privileged to have baptized Sün Yat San. May the Republic of China live & be governed by Chinese who have drunk in the best of our civilization & religion.   C.R. Hager

(Extracts from ABC 16.3.8: South China v.7 No. 133/ Microfilm Reel: 263 / y. 1912)

印行版本參:https://archive.org/stream/missionaryherald1084amer#page/171/mode/1up

The Medical Missionary Society of China

喜嘉理牧師在1894年完成醫科課程後,偕新婚妻子回到中國繼續宣教,因其時宣教的基地已由香港轉到廣州,二人遂於廣州定居。這段時期,喜牧除在四邑一帶旅行佈道之餘,也有參與廣州博濟醫院的醫療工作。在網上找到此份由喜牧撰寫的報告:

The Medical Missionary Society of China.— Dr. C. R. Hager writing from Canton, gives a summary of the fifty-sixth annual meeting of the above society. The managing committee show that the work of the Canton Hospital reached 19,000 out-patients, or attendances, and that an equal number was reached in other hospitals of that province, the total being 38,967. The admissions to hospital were 1,410, surgical operations 2,154, dental 2,053, while 1,311 visits to the houses of the sick were made. The expenditures were $2,000 while the receipts were nearly $3,800. The field covered by this society never ceases to expand, and it now conducts medical or dispensary relief in seven or eight centers. Dr. Kerr now in charge of the Canton Hospital, as well as the president of the above named society has been on the ground fully forty years.

(Extract from “Journal of the American Medical Association" Vol.24 1895, p.691-692)

原文:https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044103075776;view=1up;seq=703

“Why do you go as a Missionary?" Sermon by Rev. C. R. Hager, Preached at Antioch, Feb. 18, 1883

Sermon by Rev. C. R. Hager.

[Preached at Antioch, Feb. 18, 1883, in reply to the question asked by many, “Why do you go as a Missionary?"]

Acts xvi:9. Come over into Macedonia and help us?

I have heard so many questions concerning my desire to enter the foreign missionary field, during the past week, that I have decided to state a few of the most important reasons that move me to take this step. Some of you have shaken your heads, as much as to say that “I was going upon an errand that had nothing good in it. Your thoughts I have read in your faces. I am aware that my course may seem somewhat rash to some of you, if not to most of you. But, my friends, what I shall do, or hope to do, is not the unpremeditated judgment of a single hour, but the calm and sober thought that has been forming more and more into completion during the months that I have been among you. If I shall become a missionary of the cross to the heathen world, Antioch will, in the main part, have sent me there. This may sound incomprehensible to you, but it is even so. I came among you fresh, buoyant, strong, full of confidence in the arm of the Almighty. I learned to know you more and more day by day, as I walked among you. I measured every one of you, Christian and sinner. You may have measured me, but remember that you have not been the only ones to apply the rule. I have been reading you, and the result of that reading of your character led me last May to offer my services to the American Board for Foreign Missions. This was not the whole reason, but at least a partial one. Perhaps if I had entered upon the ministry in a different locality I should not have been a missionary. Only once before, very early in my younger years, the thought was presented to me, by hearing one of my old teachers making an earnest appeal in behalf of foreign missions, but not till one year ago last summer was the subject once more presented. Perhaps you remember the only missionary sermon I ever preached in this pulpit. If you do not, I do. That sermon was written and delivered as much to myself as to you. It was then, after the lapse of almost ten years, that the conviction forced itself upon me, that perhaps l should one day stand upon missionary ground. We are all obeying a divine law of providence, if guided by the will of God. Some lives are borne hither through tempest and storm, but I believe no life will become shipwrecked that is willing to know and do the right. Duty does not compel us to go beyond our own native land, but it does not compel us all to stay at home. I believe in a direct and personal providence which rules over every one of our lives. I do not say that we are all guided by it, for many of us are unwilling to acknowledge any such thing over us. But even then, we cannot go beyond the will of the divine God. Some men are led by a strange and miraculous guidance; others follow the leadings of their better judgments guided by their consciences.

I shall never forget how a friend of mine and myself knelt in prayer after hearing of the death of another one upon a foreign field. My friend prayed that the mantle of our brother might fall upon him, while I was inwardly conscious that God was calling me to undertake some foreign work. But I hear some of you, say that was a purpose formed in a moment of excitement. Possibly emotion did play an important part in reaching the conclusion, but the purpose was not yet fully formed; that had its birth while watching with a sick friend, and there, in part, alone. The resolve was taken and there, after a short but fierce struggle, I decided to consecrate my life to the cause of the heathen world. But the decision was only reached after hours of weighing the pros and cons. It was not the rash purpose of a moment, but the deliberate and conscientious judgment of hours of deliberation. There are some things that ought not to be told, and this, perhaps, is one of them. But I have only hinted at what passed in my own mind then. My conflicts with duty are sacred to me, almost, too holy for my most intimate friend to know. But listen a little, while I tell you some of the reasons:

  1. I do not go because there is a romance attached to missionary life. It may be inspiring to read about the work of such men as Rev. Titus Coan, who in his lifetime received 12,000 to church membership, butt the romance soon disappears when the hardships are remembered. There are many so-called Christians who are all the time sighing for some heathen land, in order to do some work for the Master, while they neglect their own immediate home missionary duties. To such an one it must be a romance to think of a missionary’s life. I have met several such persons in my life, who have continually dwelt upon this missionary theme, as though it was the grandest work the world ever beheld, and yet who never did their duty at home. I have always thought that such a person was the least fitted for missionary life. There is just as much of the true missionary spirit among those who never go upon this great mission as there is among those who go. I am not so conceited as to think that I have any more self-denial, courage or devotion to God than you have who stay at home. But let me tell you that lifelong ere this has lost its romantic features. If it has any at all, it is the romance of labor, united to a strong and determined perseverance.
  2. I do not want to go because I expect to find easier work. The lap of luxury and indolence will never hold me. I know not to what I am going, but I apprehend no easy toil. I look forward to all that is difficult and hard to overcome. I think of no easy victories, no easy tasks; but hard, laborious toil, which will require nothing less than strong and sturdy masculine powers, with a sublime faith and a strong courage. Some of you have tried to make me believe that I was working too hard here. Perhaps so. I have heard the same story ever since I first came among you. But I cannot stand idly by, when I see immortal souls going down to death without a hope in God. It would have been much easier for me if I could have followed the bent of my own inclinations, and delved into philosophy, science and theology, or even courted the muse of literature or poetry, but for none of these I found time, merely because there were so few who did really lay the salvation of others to heart. I gave up my own life-desire to become, in some measure, a writer, in order that I might save some of you, but all that I did here, and more, do I expect to do upon the foreign field if God permits me to go. Do not say to me then that I expect an easier field and easier work.
  3. I do not go because I do not find enough work here or elsewhere. For nearly a year I might have gone to two or three other places, from which I have received strong and earnest invitations. There is enough work in California for more than a dozen ministers in our own denomination, and if I were to consider for a moment the Western States and Territories a great doors is opened for devoted and energetic ministers. I think I realize the importance of the home missionary work as much as you. I have studied its need to some extent, and it is great. It is so vast that it ought to call forth our earnest prayer, and hearty cooperation, but have you not known persons who were continually talking about home missions and yet not doing anything for them?
  4. I do not go away because I do not love the work. I never spent a happier period of Christian labor than I have spent during the last twenty months. Possibly I may never spend another such delightful period, but still I do not leave you this coming week because l do not love the work. These walls have become very dear to me, by a host of memories, associated with time spent here. I shall never forget the S. S. and N. Y.
  5. I do not go because I anticipate greater results elsewhere. God has been with us here. The last few months have been days of prosperity. Some sheaves have been gathered, and yet they were not the converts of revivals. Antioch people are afraid of revivals, and yet a revival is a good thing, if it is a true one. But I do not expect as large results a foreign land as I do here. If I shall be enabled to prepare the way tor some other one to reap, I shall be satisfied. Not all heathen nations are like the Sandwich Islanders that come to the knowledge of the truths by the hundred and by the thousands, but many nations there are who have to be woe from paganism and then afterwards to the gospel truth.
  1. But I have undertaken this work because you have the gospel. Your Bibles are in your homes, whether read or unread. The Word of Life is near you. It is even in some of your months. All of you are able to quote enough for your own salvation. Say how much more gospel will you have though you should hear a million more sermons? Not one line more. The gospel is not manufactured. The Word of God was given once, and though you may listen to a sermon every Sabbath of your lifetime, you will not hear any other than the gospel as first declared. I sometimes think that the people of the present do not so much desire the real essence of the gospel, as a fine literary essay delivered with impassioned zeal.
    We hunger and thirst for the logic and thought of a Jonathan Edwards uttered by the powerful eloquence of a Whitfield. It is not so much the simple word of truth, as that truth, expressed in fine rhetorical language and uttered with the fervor and glow of eloquence, that modern people desire to hear. But my friends, all the niceties of expression or flights of poetry contain not a syllable of life-giving power. The fault of the age is, that we go to church to hear the minister instead of listening to the voice of God. The divine beatitudes of Christ are beginning to lose their power, not because they contain none, but because we think more of the human instead of the divine. We demand spiritual men to be our preachers, but how shall the preacher preach spiritually unless his auditors are spiritual. This, then, is one of my reasons for leaving this land of ours, because throughout all these wide borders there is not a single person here this morning but that ought to be a devout worshiper of God, without another single sermon preached to them.
  2. I go because I have a desire to tell the glad news of this wonderful story to those who have never heard it before. It is no story to any of you. You have either lisped or heard the name of Jesus spoken of ever since you were born. It is the old, old story to you, and sometimes you tire of it. Your looks express it. Your language emphasizes it still more. You may say that there are heathen enough in our own land without going to a foreign land. But, verily, you do not mean that you do not wish to compare yourself with those nations that have reveled in heathendom for so long a time. You say there are heathen here. Where are they? I never saw one nor heard of one in these United States of ours. Where is there one that has never heard of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of men? The roar of the cataract and the wail of the mighty deep answers, “There is none." Dare not compare any intelligent being of this great commonwealth to a worshiper of wood and stone. I long to tell this glad news of emancipation from sin to those who are bound by serfdom’s chain, and are wallowing in the mire of paganism. Here you need to be persuaded to accept the truth; there they have never heard of the wondrous story that brought Christ down to us. Is it not a motive for any one to present food to the hungry instead of first persuading persons that they are hungry? Have you never imagined what joy the gospel brought to a benighted soul, that once heard the story of the gospel and accepted it?
  3. I go because you will always have ministers who will break to you the bread of life. There are enough who are ready to preach the gospel at home, but are unable or unwilling to preach it abroad. I do not imagine that the gospel will die out because I leave here. Nearly all through our State the central places are filled with churches and denominations. We have three denominations here; when it would be better for us if we only had one. I have watched this strife for supremacy in this and other communities until I have longed for a place to preach the gospel where it was never heard. The popular preacher of to-day does not draw so much the masses as the members of other denominations. In our own community, an increase in one denomination has been detrimental to the other. Now, that is a fact as patent as it can be well established. If their church has had large congregations, the other was sure to have small ones. Now, no permanent good can come from shifting from one place to another to hear different men. It may bring momentary success, but it will not be lasting. The thing that we should aim at is to reach the masses that never attend church, these Germans and others of our community that never go to church at all. We are often pleased when our congregations are large, but should not be until we know where that congregation came from. If it came from those who seldom go to church, then may we well be pleased, but not when it takes the congregation from the other church. Do not measure your prosperity attendance, but by the class of those who attend, and by the deep spirituality in your own soul. The consideration of some of these have led me largely to consecrate my life to the heathen world, where I shall not trample upon another’s right, or stand in another’s way.
  4. I go because of the great need of the work. In our land of 50,000,000 of people we have over 80,000 ministers; whereas, in China we have only about 400 to 400,000,000. Do you think that any one ought to hesitate for a moment to go abroad if the question of need were considered. What are the few hundred missionaries that we have in our foreign countries, compared to the millions who are yet in the bondage of superstition. If we had no Word of life to take to these poor deluded mortals, their physical degradation and intellectual beliefs ought to move us to do something for their alleviation. If we were nothing more than merely philanthropic, our philanthropy would incite us to do something for their elevation; but the ministry of religion does far more than this. It not only elevates the intellectual and physical manhood of these heathen nations, but corrects their morals and brings to them the dearest boon on earth, the gift of eternal life through Jesus Christ. We shall never be able to value the worth of an immortal soul. It is beyond calculation, but what shall be said of millions of these souls who are yet in the very dankness of heathendom. Oh! How these desolate and waste places lift up their voices to the Christian lands for the light of civilization, for the gospel of peace, for the joys of eternal life! But, who is listening to that cry as it goes up to heaven ? Are any of us here when we talk so much against foreign missions. From the burning wastes of Africa, they call us to deliver them from superstition and from death. From the islands of the sea, another voice is heard, telling of nations ready to receive the gospel. But from Asia, the land where the human race first had its birth, there arises a Macedonian cry for help. Do you not hear it? If not put your ear to the roar of the waver and they will mutter that cry of distress in your ear. If we have not heard it, it is because we have not taken any pains to find the condition of the world. How selfish we are, even with our religion. We are satisfied because we have the words of eternal life, but we forget that Christ said: “Go, preach the gospel to every creature." It is not only for us, but for all. For the cannibal as well as for the intelligent man; for the Hindoo as well as the European; for the Chinese as well as the American. Let us be careful that we do not deny them the gospel, and thus become in danger of losing it ourselves. Let us not be selfish with this princely gift, for we shall only impoverish ourselves by being selfish in the matter.
  5. I go upon this mission because Christ was a foreign missionary. Did you ever think what would have happened if Christ had only been a home missionary? We should have been without his life and without his death. I suppose there was enough to have kept Christ busy in heaven without his coming to earth. He still had the angels and those pure spirits to rule over, and they might have said to him, as some of you have to me: “We cannot spare you, we need you here. The work is too hard for you. Those creatures on earth are not worthy of your self-sacrifice. They will not appreciate your mission. They will only persecute you and go about to kill you." Ah, where should we have been if Christ had listened to such appeals? Where would these sin-stained mortals of our planet have appeared in the day of judgment? The deep only could answer. And now, are you not glad that he did come, that he did undertake such a vast missionary work? I am, and shall be forever and ever.
  6. I go, lastly, upon this great mission because Christ has had infinite mercy on my soul. I shall never be able to repay him for all that he has done. This great mercy and love of Christ to me personally have moved me more than anything else to take this step. I have sometimes thought that l was the chief of sinners, but his mercy has saved my soul. And now, whether I shall fall soon or be permitted to spend many years in his service, I shall be content, knowing that he ordereth all things well. Probably I shall not be permitted to labor long upon the foreign shore, yet as long as God gives me strength I shall try to hold up the banner of the cross. If I had a thousand lives they should all be spent in the glorious work of redeeming men.

(Extracts from ABC 16.3.8: South China v.5 / Microfilm Reel: 261 / y. 1883)

THE FIRST CITIZEN OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC

在 The Medical Missionary 期刊裡,找到一篇喜嘉理牧師的長文,寫的是關於孫中山先生的事蹟。編者在所讀過有限的書籍文章中,只見大部份研究孫中山的學者多會引用喜牧刊於 The Missionary Herald v.108 1912年4月號的那篇"Dr. Sun Yat Sen: Some Personal Reminiscences"或其譯文,而未見有人提及此文。比較兩篇文章,此文顯然長得多,在期刊裡也分成兩期連載,文中有不少資料在另一篇文均未有提過,是一篇極珍貴的文獻。

THE FIRST CITIZEN OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC by REV. C. R. HAGER, M. D.

It was during the year 1867 that a child was born in the village of Tsui Hang in the District of Heung Shan (Fragrant Mountain) in the southeastern part of the Chinese Empire. There was nothing remarkable about the advent of the child. His parents. Chinese like, rejoiced that the little infant was a boy and not a girl, although another brother had already preceded him. Some fifteen to twenty miles distant was situated the old Portuguese colony of Macao which had been wrested from the ancient Empire of China by the daring Portuguese navigators, and which for many years in the past became the center for kidnapping Chinese and carrying them to various countries in South America. No doubt many of the able-bodied men of the Fragrant Mountain district were lured away from their homes and with the promise of gold were carried to distant lands from which they never returned.

As time went on, nearly every one in the district was considered a kidnapper by the surrounding districts. The little village where the object of this sketch was born lay some distance back from the sea in a sequestered retreat which is somewhat explained by its name “Purple Ravine." The family name, Sun, belongs to one of the smallest clan names in Southern China, while the village it self makes no pretensions to anything remarkable or great. Certain it is that no one ever conceived the idea that one of its members would one day

Liberate China

from the hated Manchu rule. When our young reformer was one month old the razor was applied to his head as in the case of all other Chinese children and he was shorn of all his hair, and the name of Yat Sen or “New-Every-day " was given to him. Time passed on and when he was six or seven years of age he, with other Chinese boys, with his book wrapped in a red handkerchief trudged barefooted to the village school whose master according to the regular standard beat his pupils over the head with the rattan when they did not know their lessons. A short distance from the village was the market where every five days, week in and week out, summer and winter, a fair was held to which our little Ah Sen was accustomed to go at first when only a baby on the back of his mother, but later he went on foot carrying two small baskets on each end of his little pole, so that he early learned to know what it meant to bear burdens for others.

Goes to Hanan

As time went on his brother went abroad to the “Sandal Fragrant Mountain," by which name the Hawaiian Islands are called by the Chinese, and as circumstances seemed favorable he sent for his younger brother, and so our little man, still a boy of some twelve or thirteen years of age, sailed for the mid-Pacific Islands. Dame Rumor has reported that our young aspirant’s father was a Christian, and once in the service of the London Missionary Society, but of this his own children never knew, and even the missionaries who associated with him in after years were never aware.

To all intents and purposes Yat Sen went to the Hawaiian Islands a pure and simple heathen boy, having never heard much if anything about the Master for whom he was to suffer so much in after years. It is also stated that when a boy he delighted in playing soldiers with the other Chinese boys, but whether this is so or not, he certainly never pretended to shoot with guns as our modern soldiers do, for at that time the Chinese still used bows and arrows, and little Ah Sen was not of a vindictive or war like temperament. He, like his father, coveted peace, and one of the relatives has to say of the father, that he was of an equable temper, not given to strife or contention, and these characteristics his son eminently cherished. His very face and his half shut eyes when he smiled or laughed indicated that he had not much of the martial spirit in him even if some have tried to make the world believe that our young Ah Sen wished to imitate the great Tai Ping rebel leader. Sin Hung Tsuen, who tried to drive the Manchus out of China. Whatever else our young hero may have been in those early years and even in his later years he was never a warrior, and he had really little of the martial spirit in him although he learned to command men as one of the greatest generals of the world.

In the Hawaiian Islands a new world opened to him, and it was there that he received his first religious impressions as well as some of his revolutionary ideas of reform. His school life brought him into contact with missionaries and reformers, and he early learned to imbibe their ideas, so that he could say with truth at a reception given him in Peking, “Men say that the revolution originated with me. I do not deny the charge. But where did the idea of the revolution come from? It came because from my youth I have had intercourse with foreign missionaries. Those from Europe and America with whom I associated put the ideals of freedom and liberty into my heart." And the first missionaries from whom Yat Sen heard the Gospel were those whose parents transformed the Hawaiian Islands into a Christian community.

During the experiences of the young Chinese boy in the islands, it fell to his lot to associate with some rare spirits, and one of these was the Rev. Frank W.
Damon, who for many years was the principal and superintendent of the Mills Institute for Orientals in Honolulu. It was in the autumn of 1883 that Yat Sen

Returned Once More to His Native Land,

being a passenger in the same steamer as the above mentioned missionary. At this time he was about eighteen years old according to the Chinese method of reckoning, and the reason for his return at this time was that from time immemorial it had been decreed by Chinese usage, which in those days never changed, that a young man of his age should seek himself a wife among the black-haired daughters of Han, or rather that his parents should choose for him a life companion. Whether the bridegroom worshiped the ancestral shrines is not certain, but it is commonly reported that when he went to his own village he told some of the village boys that the idols were false, upon which the young men dared him to strike these gods. Our coming revolutionist struck off a finger of one of the idols, whereupon a great cry was raised in the village against this sacrilege, and the elders of the village declared that he must be banished and his name struck off from the ancestral roll whose benefits usually amount to considerable. A great uproar was created in the village at this outrage against their protecting deities, but at this point the good old father whom the villagers knew as a peacemaker interceded for his son and even paid a small sum of money, and the young prospective bridegroom was not disinherited. It is, however, safe to say that he never molested another idol in the village.

Other young men after embracing Christianity have tried this iconoclastic method of dealing with idols when some bystanders dared them to molest the idols, but the result has always been very much the same: a great uproar and severe threatenings against the offender followed. But this was only the first encounter with old Chinese beliefs which he is still steadily opposing and fighting with all his might.

After the Marriage

had been celebrated in Chinese style he was free to leave his young wife and go to Hong Kong for more study, and it was about this time that he became acquainted with the writer with whom he lived in the same house for several years. At first he attended the Diocesan School under the Church of England, but it was not long before he changed this school for that of Queen ‘s College, which was under the control of the British Government. Both these schools offered no higher education than that which is afforded by our grammar schools and two years of the high school. This statement is made because it is sometimes stated that Dr. Sun Yat Sen was a graduate of a college when he really never finished the curriculum of either one of the above mentioned schools.

It was while attending school in Hong Kong in the year 1884 that he was baptized by the writer into the Christian faith which as we have seen he had previously espoused. The place of his baptism was a common Chinese grant-in-aid school room in Hong Kong where some seventy-five to one hundred boys studied during the week, while on Sunday a few adherents of the American Board Mission met in worship. The missionary was at this time still struggling with the Chinese language, and whenever he spoke to his young convert it was in pure American English; though he remembers how encouraged he was to be told by him on a later occasion that he spoke better Chinese than a noted missionary who at that time was considered one of the best American-Chinese speakers.

Twenty-eight years after his baptism Dr. Sun Yat Sen once more visited the little church where he first made profession of his faith. The church no longer occupied the day school room, but on the same street about one hundred yards distant stood a beautiful brick structure four stories high, in the second story of which all the Christians of Hong Kong were met to receive the distinguished ex-President of the Chinese Republic. One thousand or more were packed into the church auditorium while the streets leading up to the church were literally thronged to see the

Christian Emancipator of the Chinese People

from the hated Manchu rule.

In that audience there was one at least who witnessed his baptism years before; others were there who sympathized with and even aided him in his first revolutionary attempt, and others, too. with whom he had talked reform while a student at the Hong Kong Medical College. Some were there who disbelieved in his methods formerly but who were now doubly glad that he had succeeded. What a home-coming this was, for Hong Kong was practically the birthplace of his enlarged ideas of reform where his own crude ideas began to take shape. And now as a victor he returns home to some of the same friends that had stood by him during all these years. For once at least the despised church of Jesus receives adequate honor by the coming of its distinguished guest, and the heathen Chinese must acknowledge that the “Jesus people" are no longer the off-scouring of the earth.

But Sun Yat Sen has not changed much except in years; there is the same pleasant, winning smile as he greets one after another of his friends and then in a few simple words relates how he was baptized years ago in their midst, and admonishes his hearers to be true to their church vows and to work for righteousness in the Chinese Republic.

The congregation was largely composed of Chinese, the old missionary who had received him into the church had been invalided home never to return, but in his place stood a strong native Cantonese as pastor who conducted the services with ease and grace, and the very building in which this wonderful scene occurred is now entirely under native management.

But we are anticipating the end from the beginning, when the long and weary road of persecution, trial and difficulty must yet be trod by the young reformer.

During the summer months of 1884,

Sun Yat Sen Invited Two Missionaries

to visit with him his home, and they were probably the first white people that had ever visited the little hamlet which at that time was not easy of access. Going by way of Macao, they stopped one or two days there and sold a number of Scriptures to the natives. The remainder of the journey was made in a small Chinese junk under some difficulty, while the latter part of the way was made on foot. It was in the early morning as they entered the village that they saw the old mother whom Sun Yat Sen greeted in regular Chinese fashion by merely grunting a little without even shaking hands or showing any sign of pleasure.

Perhaps he did not know how he was going to be received with two foreigners to whom the Chinese gave no other sobriquet than that of “foreign devils." However that may have been, those same foreigners fared sumptuously at his hands and two splendid meals were served each day to them in regular Chinese style in one of the houses be longing to the family where they lived and slept. No doubt Dr. Sun Yat Sen believes now in shaking hands; for when the writer recently met his children at Berkeley and offered to say “good-bye" a la Chinese they immediately resented it and offered their hands for a good American handshake. And the time will come when his daughters will kiss him according to American style and not merely say “How do you do," in a casual way as he did on that summer morning long ago.

The writer has never forgotten the cold chills the heathen custom sent creeping up his back when he saw the meeting of mother and son, but it was perfectly proper according to the ancient rules of Chinese etiquette. During the brief stay of these missionaries they visited the market and sold Gospels to the people, and occasionally caught a glimpse of some of the other women folk, his wife and his sister-in-law. Occasionally they were also delighted to have a few of the younger men come to them for instruction in the doctrines of Christianity, for Sun Yat Sen was not ashamed to confess his Lord before the then scoffing Chinese world, and such was his earnest testimony that two of the bright young men of the community followed his example and were received into the Hong Kong church.

He never was a born orator but always an earnest pleader for the truths that he deemed right, and there was a time that he talked religion quite as much as he talked on reforms later on.

One was apt to think that he was a little unstable in some of his ways, but whatever cause he espoused he did so with all his heart. Soon after this visit to the village, and two of his companions had become Christians, all of which was reported to his older brother in Honolulu from various sources. Sun Yat Sen received a letter from his relative to come to Honolulu as his signature was necessary to a certain legal document. Before this he had, however, peremptorily demanded of his younger brother that he give up his religion and follow the customs of the Chinese in their worship of idols. But a new life was coursing through young Sun’s veins and he had said good-bye forever to all the Chinese gods. Little suspecting what was before him, he embarked for the Hawaiian Islands, where he encountered his brother’s stern command to give up his religion or else face a life of penury, as the older brother sternly told him that he would no longer support him as he had done in the past. Fortunately for Sun Yat Sen, some of his friends in the Islands were Christians who espoused the cause of the persecuted young convert and made up a purse to send him back to China

To Study For the Ministry.

With this object in view the young man once more returned to Hong Kong, and if the future could have been foretold perhaps he might have been directed towards the sacred calling; but even missionaries are not always blest with the wisdom of Solomon and perhaps in the plan of God he was to become the emancipator of his people. Finding no opportunity to study for the ministry with adequate support, he turned toward the medical profession against which the heathen Chinese are not so much opposed as against that of the Gospel ministry. But even at that period there was only one such medical school in South China, and as his allowance was quite meager at first he was often in need of money. His brother, after hearing of his desire to study for the medical profession, so far relented that he aided him to some extent in his medical education. Then, too, there were those at the old homestead who thought better of him, and his Christianity did not interfere with their taking an interest in Sun Yat Sen and secretly helping him all they could.

An older brother in China is always expected to do all he can for his parents, and his brothers and sisters, and so no doubt some of the money sent home was given to our young medical student, but during the first two years of his medical career he was often short of funds, and sometimes found it hard to meet the fee required by Dr. J. G. Kerr under whose instruction he studied from 1885 to 1887. If all had been known perhaps he would have been judged more favorably by that famous missionary physician who was inclined to think that Sun Yat Sen was rather vacillating. And this opinion has been held by others who expected him to meet every requirement of the missionary propaganda; but young Sun had been brought up to spend money a little more lavishly than most missionary boys are allowed to do, and so in his straitened circumstances it was some times hard for him to meet all his necessary expenses for tuition, board and lodging besides the books required.

In 1887 when he entered the Hong Kong Medical College all these things were provided, so that it mattered little to the young man whether his brother still adhered to his policy of disinheriting him ; he could now obtain his medical education free of expense by attending to certain duties in the hospital. It was during these five years of medical study in Hong Kong that, as said before, he with others commenced to entertain the

Idea of Reforming China.

That old Alice Memorial Hospital erected by the Chinese husband, Sir Ho Kai, in memory of his beloved English wife, was the home of more than one reformer. The physicians-in-charge, Drs. Canthe, Manson, Jordan, Hartigan and Thompson were some of the best trained English physicians and Dr. Canthe has remained the lifelong friend and supporter of Sun Yat Sen, sympathizing most thoroughly in all his ideas, besides saving him from execution at a later period in his life. Dr. Thompson not only imparted medical instruction to his students but he led his students also to believe in the Great Physician of us all. One could but feel that he daily learned from his Master and Lord. On one occasion the writer remarked to Sun Yat Sen that he had heard that he was the best student in his class, to which he replied in his own characteristic way, “There is no first one, we are all the same!" How clearly this illustrates Sun’s character. He never placed himself above his fellows, but thought of himself only as an equal to his fellow men and not superior to them. It was in 1892 that he received his medical diploma after having studied seven years, and this is practically all the higher education which he enjoyed, but chemistry and physics as well as botany opened a new world to the future first president of China, contrary to all preconceived ideas of the Chinese; and in their taking root in his and other hearts, the ideas of reform sprang up.

Many discussions were held in the rooms of the students; and the pastor of the London Mission being a progressive himself was no doubt often a sympathizing listener, for one of his sons came in after years to hold an honored place in the first cabinet of the new Republic. Pastor Wong was an earnest pastor but the as well as his father before him and his brother became reformers in the religious life of the Chinese and his sons carried it one degree further, into the political life of China.

For the next two years after his graduation in medicine he took charge of the Western Medical department of a Chinese hospital in Macao where according to his former preceptor, Dr. Canthe, he showed considerable skill, but it is safe to say that with all his practice he still found time to give expression to his ideas of reform among the Chinese gentry and others with whom he was permitted to associate. The old Chinese sleeping giant had begun to yawn a little and show some signs of awakening, but alas! the young Emperor of China had not yet begun to set up a railroad in his palace and there was practically no change for the better.

Under these circumstances Dr. Sun and others formed themselves into a secret society to

Oppose the Existing Corrupt Government,

and like others before them the attempt was to be made in the city of Canton. But the plans of the reformers miscarried and instead of driving out the Chinese officials most of the ring-leaders were themselves seized and summarily beheaded, and among them was one of Dr. Sun’s friends whom he had led to Christ. It is also stated that this young man, Mr. Luk, first informed Dr. Sun that the authorities were after him, which enabled him to make good his escape, while he himself suffered martyrdom and confessed before his execution that he and Sun as well as others had plotted against the reigning government.

Many of the hired coolies who went from Hong Kong to Canton, a distance of ninety miles, to take possession of the officials’ residence were themselves placed in custody.

This occurred just after the close of the Chinese and Japanese war by which China had been so humiliated and had lost the Island of Formosa. Dr. Sun had closed his labors with the Chinese hospital in Macao because the Portuguese Government only allowed doctors with a Portuguese medical diploma to practice in the city.

Before the attempted revolution the writer received a call from Dr. Sun during the autumn of 1894. He was dressed in his silken Chinese robe and was as cordial as ever, and when a friend asked how the writer ever came to baptize such a remarkable person, he was perplexed for a moment how to reply, for he had never considered him a remarkable prodigy of intellect or force of character. But if the prince of Chinese preachers could say this, it indicated that there was something unusually brilliant about this former convert. But Dr. Sun chatted along in his familiar style as if there was nothing very superior about him, at least so thought the writer, and he insisted that it was God who had influenced him to become a Christian.

Not a word was said about the in tended revolution, in fact, Dr. Sun has always been

Careful Not to Involve Any of the Missionaries

in his revolutionary plans. He may have gained his ideas of liberty from their teachings, but he has never made them his confidants in cementing his revolutionary schemes; in fact, most of these persons both in China and in America advised him against using any drastic measures, and what he has accomplished has been chiefly done through and with the aid of Chinese. A few foreigners may have been interested in his schemes, but on the whole he has wrought them out alone and singlehanded. There were other Chinese reformers who disdained his methods and who never were willing to join him. and so from the winter of 1894-5 when he barely escaped with his life, he became a wandering refugee upon whose head, dead or alive, was placed a sum of money which was increased until it reached the enormous sum of one hundred thousand pounds sterling. Japan and even Hong Kong denied him the right of sojourning in their territory, and so whenever these places were visited he was obliged to go incognito, and be never felt himself safe anywhere at first. After the Canton episode and failure he made his way to Japan and later to the Hawaiian Islands to which his family emigrated. It was while here that one day he met his former instructor. Dr. Canthe. in 1896, who asked him to come to England, which he did during the same year, when he was lured to the Chinese Embassy in London, and there was made a prisoner with the expectation of carrying him back to China in order to give, him up to the old Empress Dowager who was looking for the heads of all Chinese reformers.

It was while he was incarcerated in his London prison waiting to be secretly sent to China that

Dr. Sun Gave Himself up to Prayer

and realized that God was his friend though all the world was against him. In his extremity he found solace and comfort in the promises of God, and it is safe to say that his religious life was very much deepened. Indeed, most of the religious expressions ascribed to him date back to this time of trial when he had little hope of extricating himself from the clutches of the old Manchu Government, which for eighteen years in almost every land had its spies to watch the movements of the hated Sun. But Dr. Sun believed that he must do all he could to answer his own prayers, and secretly dispatched a note telling of his sad condition which in due time reached Dr. Canthe who with the aid of the English Government soon secured his liberty.

A separate chapter might be written on this episode, but it is sufficient to state that Dr. Sun always felt that his old Hong Kong preceptor had saved his life, and for this reason as well as others he has remained his lifelong friend.

But what will our liberated reformer now do? Will he continue his reform efforts, or settle down like so many had done before him, and say it is no use? Once he had escaped by a very narrow margin, when he attempted to reform China by the use of arms, and after fleeing for months found himself entrapped in the greatest metropolis of the world. Surely he has done his duty. But that is not what our Sun said. After spending some time with his medical friend and instructor he embarked once more for the theatre of his action. He had tried the use of arms and thought that that was the only way to free China, but now he discarded these weapons of warfare and commenced his peaceful revolution by preaching his doctrines of reform to all classes of Chinese in every land.

He had been entrapped onee by the authorities, and this made him more careful but none the less bold and persistent to carry his evangel of righteousness to all parts of the Chinese world. At first, some of the Chinese looked with disfavor upon his cause, but he continued to disseminate his doctrines far and near until year by year his cause gained strength. From one place to another in his own country he traveled, on foot, on boats and in every way he could to disseminate his one gospel,

“The Chinese Must Rule; and the Manchus Must Go."

Three doctrines he dwelt upon continually, which were these: 1. The people of the eighteen provinces are by right the real inheritors of the Empire of China. 2. The Chinese people must be supreme in government and not submit to the Manchu’s rule. 3. The people must control the matter of wealth production. And not only were the eighteen provinces traversed from north to south and from east to west, but his journeys took him to other lands whither the Chinese had emigrated. Siam, Straits Settlement. Cochin China, the Philippine Islands, Japan, Hawaiian Islands, Canada and America were all visited with this same gospel of freedom from oppression’s rule.

Some who sympathized with him at first began to think that his ideas of reform would be carried out by the old Manchu Government, especially when the Emperor Kuangsu issued so many edicts for reform.

The writer himself meeting him twice in 1904 in America, suggested to him that the Manchus were bringing to the Chinese all the liberties that they craved, but his simple reply was, “No; the Manchus must go." He did not attempt to argue the case but simply asserted what he believed to be the right thing to do.

It would be interesting to relate all the experiences of Dr. Sun Yat Sen in all these wanderings, for as a rule, except when he was among friends, he was almost always disguised, sometimes as a spectacled Japanese peddler who went into the heart of China disposing of his little wares and preaching his reform ideas and sometimes in another role, when he almost fell into the hands of his enemies. In Canton he found an asylum in the hut of a friendly boatman, which being observed by some spies of the government was watched, and the only way he got away unobserved was after a friend had

Shot These Soldier Spies.

At another time in the same city an officer and twelve soldiers came into the room where he was, to arrest him, but he read and talked to them about the teachings of their ancient sages in such a fascinating manner that they were simply spell-bound and never laid hands on him, although to capture him meant promotion and a large reward for all the men. A similar event occurred in Nanking when a man came to arrest him on a boat, but Dr. Sun’s persuasive manner again gained the victory and the man felt so ashamed at what he had tried to do that like Judas he went and hanged himself. In the Island of Hainan he was once a prisoner for six months because he could not leave the house with safety.

The time may come when Dr. Sun may divulge more of his narrow escapes and state in how many different ways he eluded the spies of the old Empress Dowager who longed for his head quite as much as Herodias did for the head of John the Baptist.

Some of his former friends were not prepared to believe that he had traveled all over China and made converts every where. His presence in Japan, and other foreign countries adjacent to China, was expected, but that he should put his head almost into the very jaws of the lion the writer never dreamed of. He had heard of his speaking in America and Canada but never supposed that he would dare to set his foot again on the soil of his native province, which how ever he did again and again.

When disturbances broke out here and there over the empire no one had an idea that they were the result of Dr. Sun’s teaching, which they really were. And few believed at the time when the government and the revolutionary troops clashed arms in the autumn of 1911, at Hankow, that Dr. Sun was the cause of it all. And yet this was so, although he was in America at the time. And when the time was fully ripe for the formation of a republic a telegram was sent to London to meet him on his way to China, asking him to accept

The Presidency of the Chinese Republic

which he had brought into being.

Some diplomats and others were surprised that such an unknown person was chosen, but Yuan Shi Kai knew his worth and wanted him to return long before. It was but natural that he should become the head of the government that he had created, nourished and for which he had suffered so much. Fifteen years before, he had almost lost his head and now he is placed at the head of the greatest nation in the world, and if it is asked what brought or put him there, it may be replied, his unselfish patriotism, his great love for his own countrymen, his simple and persuasive manner and his patient self-sacrifice. Once more he enters China, not as a fugitive but with the seals of office in his pocket ; he was driven from home and now he is besought to return and rule a people that had spurned him.

Surely he has conquered, not by weapons of carnal warfare, but by his own gentle, persistent and patient preaching of his propaganda. Dr. Canthe calls him the “most perfect character" he ever knew, and his simplicity, amiability and unselfishness have won the hearts of all the Chinese people, and so they place him at their head. He accepts the presidency, but when he sees that more can be accomplished for the people and for China without the shed ding of blood, he resigns in favor of another, but not until he is sure that his ideal form of government, a republic, is established. No need of a Hague tribunal to settle the difficulties between the premier of the old Manchu rule and the new President of the young Republic. Sun Yat Sen, whose name now means “Immortal Rest," holds his hand on the helm of the ship of state and guides it into safe waters, and when during the first months of the year of 1912 every one was wondering what the outcome would be between the old and new rulers in China, lo and behold, the new ship of state, the Republic of China, is launched without the shedding of blood, and this was due to the noble chivalry and generous self-denial of Dr. Sun Yat Sen who had learned his first lesson at the feet of missionaries.

“Father of His Country"

do you say? Oh, no. he does not lay claim to that, he has only accomplished the grand purpose of his youth and man hood and now he can rest and let others take the helm. His work is done as a ruler, but he becomes instead the first citizen of the great Chinese Republic.

He refuses all office and only accepts the position of railroad commissioner because by so doing he can unite China more thoroughly together, but when he speaks now his one word weighs more than ten words of any other Chinese, for he has so won the hearts of the Chinese people that he has become their idol. Whether in the president’s chair or as a wandering refugee, wherever he goes, he always portrays the same qualities of gentleness and good will to all. From north to south he has gone cementing the Chinese people, and bringing into one harmonious whole the various provinces of China until the north as well as the south rejoices to do him honor. During a visit to Japan during February and March in 1913, he was most royally feted by all classes, and has cleared away much of the animosity that existed between the Chinese and Japanese; yea, some of the leading Chinese regard his visit to Japan as the great harbinger of peace through out the East.

Truly he merits the title of the great Peacemaker of the Orient, and is honored to-day not only by his own country but also by Japan who has shown its good will by every courtesy in its power. Whether he will ever be willing to offer himself as a candidate for the presidency remains exceedingly doubtful, since he does not long for power or patronage, but rather that he may bless and benefit his country, and his spirit of self-abnegation will be a lasting memorial to him of which any land and any country may be proud.

(Extracts from “The Medical Missionary" Vol.22 1913, p.184-188&218-224)

原文:https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015071512126;view=1up;seq=190

THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION IN CHINA

在 The American Missionary Magazine 裡尋得一篇在喜嘉理牧師死後一年才出版的文章:

THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION IN CHINA by Rev. C. R. Hager, M. D.

We call especial attention to the record of the American Missionary Association in China through the Chinese who were converted from their pagan superstition and practices in our missions in California. Dr. Hager who since the preparation of this valuable story of missionary achievement has passed on to reward of a devoted life—the South China Mission was organized at the request of Congregational Chinese in this country and Dr. Hager was its first and for a long time its only missionary. After years of strenuous service doing pioneer and yet constructive work he was broken in health and returning to California his last years were spent in working for the Chinese and Hindus, part of the time under the auspices of the American Missionary Association. He lived a great life.

THE news of the discovery of gold in California in 1848, carried to South China, was one of the first causes of the Chinese coming to America. Strange to say, nearly all these Chinese came from one province and chiefly from four or five districts, which have an area of about 10,000 square miles.

These emigrants were country farmers whose life had largely been spent in villages tending the few acres of land which they or their nearest kindred possessed. A few were business men, and a few others students or teachers who wanted to better their material condition abroad, but very few were “coolies" or the common laborers of the coast cities. Each one represented a family who secured in some way the passage money to the land of the Flowery Flag as America is called. In each immigrant from the Middle Kingdom one could thus see a family unit, who represented parents and brothers and sisters at home. The Chinese who came were more than individuals; they still belonged to their families and clans in China, hoping at no distant day to return to them and share with them the profits of their sojourn abroad. They took their religion with them, and of course were expected to bring the same religion back with them. All that the home friends wanted was money, and they expected that their representatives abroad would remain to all intents and purposes Chinese.

Not one of these Orientals would have changed his faith if it had not been for a few earnest Christian hearts working under various missionary societies who sought to bring a knowledge of the gospel to them through the medium of the English language. For more than forty-five years such work has been carried on through the untiring efforts of Dr. W. C. Pond, and for most of that time under the American Missionary Association. From Oroville in the north to San Diego in the south, the Chinese attended the night schools, not to learn Christianity but English. Yet with the English they gradually learned the gospel story and joined themselves to the followers of Christ, until the number of baptised converts in the missions of the American Missionary Association has been considerably over three thousand. It is but natural to ask what reflex influence has been felt in China for all the efforts and money expended in California among the more than twenty missions that have been maintained by the Association. Has the investment of men and money really paid? And what has been the fruitage in China? Like all loyal sons of the Middle Kingdom, these baptized Christians returned from time to time to their own homes. Did they carry the gospel with them, or did they leave it on this side of the Pacific?

The great and lasting benefit of this work in California was the founding of the South China Mission of the American Board, through the urgent appeals of the Christian Chinese on the Pacific Coast in the year 1883. A goodly number of Christians had been gathered through the missions of the American Missionary Association, but not a single member of the Congregational church was found among the homes of these Chinese in China. So the California Chinese carried their appeal to New York and to Boston, until a mission was established by the American Board chiefly among the homes of the American Chinese.

Some thirty-four years have elapsed since then, and what see we now ? A well organized American Board Mission with some twenty-six stations; a Chinese Missionary Society with six full-fledged mission stations, entirely supported by the Chinese Christians in the American Missionary Association missions of California. The superintendent of these mission stations is a Chinese converted in one of our missions in California, the Rev. Joe Jet, who has now been in charge of the work for more than twenty-three years. At each one of these stations there is a preacher or preacher and teacher combined. In one or two instances there is a preacher and several teachers. The gospel is thus not only preached but also taught, for in connection with these stations there are seven or eight schools, one or two of which is a high school. Two or three of these schools are for girls. The total number under instruction is over 200. The text-books, besides the Bible, are the new and modern text-books used all over China. Every day the pupils are gathered for morning and evening worship, and on the Sabbath they attend the regular church service and the Sunday school.

The first work of the Society was of an itinerant character and embraced preaching, dispensing of medicines and the distribution of the Scriptures. Rev. Joe Jet represented the preacher, another Chinese converted in America distributed portions of the Bible, while two other Chinese were engaged in attending to the sick. For nearly a year this evangelistic and medical party went from place to place, preaching the gospel and healing the sick. As a rule they only visited the regions where chapels were already established or where they had been especially invited. After going over part of two districts, where the Chinese Missionary Society has now two stations, this kind of missionary work was exchanged for that of the regular preaching in chapels and the school work in connection with these chapels. The first chapel was opened in 1890 and for several years this was the only work attempted, but in the year 1894 a Preaching Hall was opened in the city of Canton, and after several years other stations were planted in Yan Ping City in 1902 and in San Ui City in 1903. Afterwards the American Board handed over the two stations of Cheung Sha and See Gow, both in the Hoi Ping districts, to the Chinese Society. The object of the Society was to have at least one station in each of the four districts whence most of the American Chinese converts came. At each one of these stations there is a church costing from $500 to $6000, and the amount of property owned by the Society at the present time is from $18,000 to $20,000 in gold, while the annual expenditure is from $700 to $1000. In some instances the school fees support the teacher in part if not wholly. The missionary working force thus consists of one superintendent with five other preachers and some eight or nine teachers. In Canton itself there is a Reading Room besides regular work of preaching and Bible instruction. The number of converts received into the church by baptism at these various stations has been about 1,000. A number of the students of these mission schools are now in American colleges preparing themselves for greater usefulness, while several have been employed as helpers in the American Missionary Association mission schools of California. Fourteen or fifteen Chinese converts in American Missionary Association missions have given to China about ninety years of service as mission helpers. Their work in China is perhaps even larger than the present work of the American Missionary Association in California. The additions to church membership from the stations of the Chinese Missionary Society number from forty to one hundred annually. The American Missionary Association may well be proud of those it has sent out to a large and distant mission field in China with a population of several millions.

Besides the work of the Chinese Missionary Society, much has been done by individual Christians who found the light in the American Missionary Association missions in California. Foremost among these is Rev. Yung Pak, who when the American Board gave up the Hong Kong Station in 1910 assumed full charge of this and another out station, besides caring for a station that he had personally opened in 1897. Within the last few years he has also been asked to be superintendent of a union mission conducted by Chinese Christians converted in America. He has thus four stations tinder his care, where our preachers and several Bible women are working. With these stations are connected two girls schools and two boys schools having more than a hundred pupils. The property of these four stations amounts to about $25,000, more than half of which was raised by the pastor and the Chinese. The annual expense of carrying on the work is from $700 to $1000. The yearly additions to the four churches is about 100. The entire membership of these churches from the beginning is fully 1000 souls. The American Board inaugurated part of this work and materially aided it for a number of years, but has now left it to the Chinese Christians. Rev. Yung Pak was a convert at one of the smallest missions of the American Missionary Association in California, but God has most wonderfully blessed him in connection with his mission work in China. He has given twenty fruitful years of service to the cause and demonstrates the value of our investments for missions among the Chinese in California. He has made good a thousand  old what was expended on the mission where he was led to Christ.

Many others, converts in our missions have had a decided influence upon mission work in China. Some have been employed by the American Board as helpers, others have stood behind all Christian work and aided with their influence and means. Neither the American Board nor the Chinese Missionary Society nor Rev. Yung Pak would have been able to do the work which has been accomplished, without the aid of these men, who in many instances have formed the bulwark of the infant churches. Some twelve men have served the American Board for a period of from one to twenty years, with a total of some forty years of service. They were principally engaged in preaching the gospel, a few in teaching, and a few others in distributing the Scriptures. One of them, Yung Chan, a former American Missionary Association helper, aided the American Board in opening five new stations. He was the lawyer of the whole mission, and when any official business was to he performed, he was the one chosen to write the communications to the Chinese officials. He was always wise in counsel, and served the American Board for twenty years.

If our space would permit we should like to mention many other Chinese who were converted to Christianity in California through the American Missionary Association and who are now engaged in valiant service in China—in pulpits, as teachers and in many positions of influence.

But one name stands out conspicuously among these many Chinese converted in America who have aided in the educational awakening of China. Fong Fee See came to California when a boy of thirteen. He entered the mission school of the A. M. A. at Sacramento, but when his uncle opposed his attendance and his growing interest in the religion of Christ, he tied his belongings in a handkerchief, threw them out of the window and left to find a job for himself. He continued to attend the mission till he professed faith in Christ, and later became a helper in this and other missions. Afterwards he attended Pomona College, and finally graduated at the University of California, and took post-graduate work at Columbia. Returning to Canton he attended and spoke at an American Board Conference, and later went to Peking where he received the third literary degree of the Chinese educational system, the first ever granted to an American Chinese Christian. Shortly after, he was married to a Christian girl who had been educated in a San Francisco mission school. He moved to Shanghai to engage in the translation of school books for the Commercial Press. The modern text books which he has edited are used by the thousands in every province of China, and have contributed greatly to the development of the new China.

Not only the Chinese converted in America have played a great part in their own country, but also have these Chinese aided China in her social and moral struggles. Every Chinese preacher and every Chinese Christian has been a reformer. The evil social customs of the Chinese were arraigned from the pulpit, in the street and everywhere. Gambling, opium smoking, licentiousness and drunkenness, with the evils of polgamy, foot-binding and the various idolatrous practices and superstitions were always held up to ridicule and condemnation, and what the preacher said, the Chinese Christians reiterated in private life. They were always telling about the superiority of American customs and manners. In the building of houses many a religious battle was fought because they would not choose a lucky day nor employ a geomancer. In politics they took leading part, though most of them had no love for the Manchu ruling class. When the Manchu dynasty was overthrown and a republic established, they gave their heart and soul to the new order of things. In Western medicine the Chinese converted in America have also had a share in benefiting China, for several of the returned American Chinese studied to be doctors, while others, seeing the benefits accrued from Western drugs, opened a number of these drug stores in the interior of China, which have been of very great benefit in the healing of the more common diseases.

South China has sometimes been called the hot-bed of rebellion, merely because the majority of the Chinese were opposed to the existing corrupt practices of their officials. But this is not surprising when it is remembered that many of the Chinese had been to America and elsewhere and had learned something better, and it is no wonder that they were the first to rise against their unjust rulers.

No matter from what angle the work of the American Missionary Association in California is viewed, it must be acknowledged that the reflex influence on China has been very great, and to a large extent has prepared the way for the general evangelization of the Canton province, as well as the reformation of the whole of China. Has not this work paid one hundred fold?

(Extracts from “The American Missionary Magazine" Vol.72 1918, p.353-356)

A MEMORABLE DAY IN SOUTH CHINA

台山南村以南的赤溪一帶是五邑地區唯一以客家人為主的地區。這一篇刊於Missionary Herald的文章描述了福音如何進入這地言語有別的族群:

BY REV. C. R. HAGER, M.D., OF HONG KONG.

The Christian laborer in China never knows when, if ever, he shall see the fruit of his labors. He may toil for years and not see a single soul turning to the truth, while sometimes the fruit will appear speedily and where he least expected to find it. This truth has been recently exemplified in a part of the field occupied by the American Board Mission in South China.

Some fifty years ago a people known as the “Stranger people" in distinction from the natives, were driven by the latter to the coast and were unable to flee any further. Here they established themselves, and no Protestant work was done among them, though the Catholics occupied one or two stations. Speaking a different dialect from that used by myself, I attempted no work among them, though I visited several places and distributed books. This continued until last year, after the completion of our new Nam T’sun chapel, when several of these people were baptized. Since then the work has spread to other parts until there has been a general turning to the Lord. When asked why they did not enter the Catholic church, they replied that that church did not preach the gospel. There may be a great deal of repeating prayers, but no public preaching service is ever held. It is not strange, then, that many of these people should seek to enter our church.

Before visiting the station of Nam T’sun I had received word from one of our best helpers that a large number wished to be baptized, but I was hardly prepared for the sight that met my eyes when, after a great deal of teaching and careful investigation, one hundred and one souls were declared to be ready for baptism, ninety-five of whom came from this “Stranger" people. The chapel, able to seat some two hundred to two hundred and fifty, was filled to overflowing, and the exercises commenced at 10 a.m. by a service of song, and continued for at least five hours, before the last person left the church. At first one woman was baptized, and afterwards, because there was not enough room for the men, the women were asked to vacate the room and go into their waiting-room. Then all the Chinese who had come from a distance of twenty miles were asked to occupy the vacated seats. After some further pledges had been taken, they were baptized in relays of four, as they knelt before the pulpit. After the first fifty-eight had been baptized, the others from a distance of eight miles were asked to take their places, and these were baptized in a similar way.

At the close of these services, which were interspersed with hymns, short sermons, and talks, the communion was administered to the older Christians most of the converts having left ere this. It was indeed a memorable and joyous day to me, one that I never expected to see in China, and one that I may not sea again. The converts received represent four distinct regions, at each of which we shall have a chapel. The new converts have promised to furnish a chapel in each place, and we hope to have four distinct stations where we now have only one. The teaching will, for the present, be in the Cantonese dialect, as most of the people can understand it, but we ought to have several preachers who speak the dialect of the people.

While seeking to make the people do as much as they can, we ought at least to furnish the preacher’s salary. Is not the field promising enough to do this? Who would have thought of this two years ago, when $500 was offered for my head, and our Nam T’sun chapel lay in ashes, and I was warned not to attempt to make my autumnal visit into the country? Only two years’ time, a new chapel ten times better than the first, a boys’ school of twenty, with a girls’ school to follow next year, and 100 souls baptized at one communion I Surely we are not laboring in vain. Let us put in the sickle and reap, for now is the time to do our best work for China with our prayers, our money, and ourselves.

(Extract from “The Missionary Herald" Vol.99 1903, p.20-22)

https://archive.org/stream/missionaryheral22missgoog#page/n36/mode/2up

Facts About the South China Mission

(Conducted by Dr. C. R. Hager)

Ques.- When was the South China Mission opened?
Ans.- In the year of 1883.

Ques.- Under what Missionary Society was the Mission organized?
Ans.- Under the American Board Mission, where headquarters are at Boston.

Ques.- Why was the Mission opened?
Ans.- Because the California Chinese Christians of the Congregational Church wanted to have a church of their own order in China.

Ques.- Who was the first Missionary sent out?
Ans.- Dr. C. R. Hager.

Ques.- When did Dr. Hager sail for China?
Ans.- February 24, 1883.

Ques.- When did he arrive in China?
Ans.- March 30, 1883.

Ques.- Did any other Missionary accompany Dr. Hager?
Ans.- None.

Ques.- Where did Dr. Hager locate the headquarters of the Mission?
Ans.- In Hongkong.

Ques.- To whom does Hongkong belong?
Ans.- To the British.

Ques.- When was it ceded to them by the Chinese?
Ans.- In 1842.

Ques.- What is the present population of Hongkong, with all its villages?
Ans.- 380,000.

Ques.- What was Dr. Hager’s work during the first year?
Ans.- Studying Chinese in the day time, and teaching a free English school at night, besides occasionally preaching to the sailors and soldiers.

Ques.- What was his second year’s work?
Ans.- Studying Chinese, making tours into the country, overseeing three day schools in Hongkong and preaching to the sailors and soldiers on Sunday.

Ques.- How long was Dr. Hager alone in the Mission?
Ans.- Nearly 8 years.

Ques.- When did Dr. Hager return to America?
Ans.- In the year 1891, on account of incipient phthisis.

Ques.- How long did he remain in America?
Ans.- Three years.

Ques.- What did he do while here?
Ans.- Studied medicine to fit himself for a medical missionary.

Ques.- When did he again return to China?
Ans.- In 1894.

Ques.- Who had charge of the Mission between the years 1891 and 1894?
Ans.- Rev. J. R. Taylor and Rev. C. A. Nelson, with their wives.

Ques.- Where were they located?
Ans.- In Canton.

Ques.- Where did Dr. Hager locate after his return?
Ans.- In Canton for one and a half years, and then again in Hongkong.

Ques.- What was Dr. Hager’s work after his return?
Ans.- Superintend five or six day schools in Hongkong and make tours into the country to preach the gospel and dispense medicine.

Ques.- When was the HongKong Mission house built?
Ans.- In 1901.

Ques.- What did it cost?
Ans.- $16,000 with the land.

Ques.- What is it worth today?
Ans.- $25,000.

Ques.- How is the building divided?
Ans.- Fourth floor, the missionary and family live; third floor, an English school, accommodating about 200 pupils; second floor, church auditorium, with a seating capacity of 500; first floor, girls’ school, boys’ school, chapel for heathen preaching and Chinese living rooms.

Ques.- How much did the American Board help to erect the building?
Ans.- Not a cent.

Ques.- Who raised the money?
Ans.- Dr. Hager and the Chinese.

Ques.- To whom does the building belong?
Ans.- To the American Board.

Ques.- Is it free of debt?
Ans.- Yes.

Ques.- What is the attendance on Sabbath?
Ans.- About 200.

Ques.- Is the church self supporting?
Ans.- It is; it pays the salary of its own native pastor and carries on its own mission work.

Ques.- Is it self propagating?
Ans.- It is, and has already started two centers of mission work in other places.

Ques.- What was Dr. Hager’s work in the country?
Ans.- To open chapels and Christian schools, and to dispense medicine to the sick.

Ques.- Was the work successful?
Ans.- Yes; during the last 27 years some 60 stations were opened and 5334 persons baptized, 10,000 pupils instructed in the various schools, beside treating 1,000 patients annually.

Ques.- What does the report of 1909 show?
Ans.- It shows 50 stations, 40 native preachers, 29 schools, 27 native teachers, 750 pupils, 12 Bible women, 5 colporteurs, 25 chapels owned by the mission and 17 rented places, with an addition of 250 persons to the membership of the church for the year.

Ques.- When was Dr. Hager obliged to leave China?
Ans.- February 17, 1910, on account of a tropical disease that is difficult to be cured in the tropics.

Ques.- Who is now in charge of the work?
Ans.- Mrs. Hager, who is herself sick.

Ques.- Who makes the quarterly country tours for Dr. Hager?
Ans.- The Hongkong native pastor.

Ques.- When Mrs. Hager returns to America who will then do the work?
Ans.- No one, for there is only one missionary in Canton and two single ladies.

Ques.- Ought not the American Board appoint a new missionary at once to Hongkong?
Ans.- Yes.

Ques.- Ought we not try to raise the salary of the new missionary and his wife, which is about $1,000 a year?
Ans.- Yes, we’ll do our very best.

Ques.- What does a native worker’s support cost a year?
Ans.- Preacher, $75; teacher, $75; Bible women $25; a student, $35; girl at school, $30.

Ques.- How much does it cost to erect a chapel?
Ans.- $1500 to $2000.

Ques.- Don’t you want to adopt one of these needs as your own?
Ans.- Yes, we do, and have our representative in China.


DAILY FACTS JOB PRINT.

(Extracts from ABC 16.3.8: South China v.7 / Microfilm Reel: 263 / y. 1910)

喜嘉理不是牧師?

在李志剛牧師所著《香港基督教會史研究》一書中有一篇章名為《香港基督教會與孫中山先生現代化思想》,在其註釋的第24條這樣寫:「…又據中華基督教香港區會公理堂主任馬敬全牧師告謂,喜嘉理原為一位醫生,其來華是屬以醫藥傳道之教士,故非牧師,亦非博士,惟早期來華教士,華人均以牧師稱之。…」

查馬敬全牧師於數年前已安息主懷,編者無法向他求證李志剛牧師所寫是否確實出自其口,抑或是李牧師會錯其意。

但編者在此必須澄清此註釋與事實並不相符。

查喜嘉理確實是一位曾受按的牧師,起初來華的任務亦非以醫藥傳道為主,其醫學博士學位是在其後回美養病期間再進修取得。(詳見本站https://crhagerfacts.wordpress.com/about/)。

//The Rev. C. R. Hager, who went to Hong-kong, to establish the new mission of the American Board, reached that city the 31st of March. He received a warm welcome from many of the Chinamen who had returned from the United States. He finds the missions of the London, the Wesleyan, the English Church, and the Basle Missionary Societies in vigorous operation. The special work which the mission of our own Board has in view, concerns the Chinese who return from this country, and their friends who live in the vicinity of Hong-kong. Among these people Mr. Hager is persuaded there is an abundant field for effective missionary service.// [‘Editorial Paragraphs’, The Missionary Herald  (Boston, July 1883), p.248]

CHINESE PIRATES ROB A MISSIONARY

1906年一篇刊在"San Francisco Call"關於喜牧夫婦在內地被海盜洗劫的報導:

CHINESE PIRATES ROB A MISSIONARY

American Clergyman Is Held Up a Short Distance From City of Canton.

HONGKONG. April- 7.— Chinese pirates on April 3 held up three passenger boats fourteen miles from Sanshui, not far from Canton, and robbed the Rev. Dr. Charles R. Hager, an American missionary. In an interview here today Dr. Hager said:

“Our boat and two others were anchored off a village on the Lung River, when they were simultaneously attacked at night by forty pirates armed with Mauser rifles. They fired at us and narrowly missed me. The boats were riddled with bullets. I was divested of my clothes, cash and surgical instruments. I have reported the matter to the American Consul at Canton."

Dr. Hager and his wife, Mrs. Marie V. R. Hager, reside In Hongkong. They are Congregationalists and under the orders of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions.

(Extracts from “San Francisco Call" Volume 99 Number 129 p.41, 8 April 1906)

原文:http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SFC19060408.2.103